William A. Nolen, M.D., graduated from Tufts medical school in 1953. He received his surgical training in the Cornell Surgical Division at Bellevue and served in the Army Medical Corps. He is currently the chief of surgery at the Litchfield Clinic in Litchfield, Minnesota. Among the eight books he has written for a general audience is The Making of a Surgeon . His last article for American Heritage was “ A Short History of Heart Surgery ” (August/ September 1983).
With its roots in the medically benighted eighteenth century, and its history shaped by the needs of the urban poor, Bellevue has emerged on its 250th anniversary as a world-renowned center of modern medicine