Native Americans First View Whites From The Shore

New York Indians Discover Dutchmen

Whenever Indians and Europeans met, the process of discovery was usually reciprocal. In hindsight, these first encounters were asymmetrically momentous events, presaging catastrophic consequences for the native peoples of North America. Europeans wrote accounts of these meetings; Indians did not. Nevertheless, memories of such meetings passed from generation to generation within the tribes. Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers, stories no doubt retold with increasing bitterness as Europeans kept coming.Read more »

The Case Of The Kensington Rune Stone

An eminent scholar argues that its inscription is only a hoax.

Did Norsemen, coming via Greenland and, perhaps, Hudson Bay, penetrate the Minnesota-Great Lakes area over a century before Columbus? A number of students and fervent Scandinavian-Americans, their belief fortified by scraps of Norse legend and literature and supported by such supposed relics as the Kensington rune stone, are sure of it. Most scholars, however, either doubt or reject the story, and their chief spokesman is Erik Wahlgren, professor of Scandinavian languages at the University of California at Los Angeles.

The Lordly Hudson

Over 350 years a mighty pageant of history has moved through the myth-haunted valley of the “Great River of the Mountains”

Orientals were first upon the river. They came by land, and their journey eastward across the continent from its northwest coast to the banks where, their soothsayers had said, they might rest beside a water that-flows-two-ways, had lasted many generations. There is no knowing who first saw the ocean bound current turn about and run toward the mountains whence it came, but the realization of: a prophecy fulfilled must have come upon him with a stunning impact.