- Historic Sites
Miami Hot And Cool
Every January, South Beach, the tropical-Deco capital, holds a week-long party
December 1998 | Volume 49, Issue 8
Wherever I went on a visit to Miami’s South Beach, people wanted to tell me what it used to be like. From the 1960s into the 1980s, I heard, the one-and-a-half-square-mile strip of island on the Atlantic Ocean was little more than a warehouse for the near-poverty- level elderly, a forgotten, crime-ridden neighborhood of menace and drugs. But at the same time, thanks to the televised glamour of “Miami Vice,” and the efforts of a vocal group of preservationists, the place was becoming the greatest outdoor Art Deco museum anywhere in the world.
Today, when South Beach is hotter than ever in the minds of a particular type of trend spotter, it is once again threatened, this time by the predictable accessories of success: mall-like chain stores and massive apartment complexes. Moreover, the epicenter of “hot” or “cool” (the terms appear to be interchangeable) has moved a half-mile north of low-rise South Beach to the newly refurbished taller hotels that line Collins Avenue to form a wall, architecturally charming but implacable nonetheless, between the street and the beach.
Looking back at the history of the place, which I did last January, during the Miami Design Preservation League’s twenty-first annual Art Deco Weekend, I kept trying to envision South Beach as it was when Barbara Capitman, recently widowed and with a background in interior design, came upon it in the mid-1970s. From the bleak evidence of rundown buildings that barely whispered of the tropical-colored glory of a thirties beach resort in full flourish, Capitman spotted something nobody else had and she rallied a small band of supporters to form the Miami Design Preservation League.
Capitman wanted to revivify a culture that was sleeping but not gone in the hundreds of structures that, remarkably, had survived the neglect of decades. She was way ahead of her time. Although haute Deco had by then made a comeback, few gave thought to the style in its humblest, most vernacular form. When, after the kinds of battles common to all nascent preservation movements, Capitman managed to have a section of South Beach declared a National Historic District in 1979, it was the first listing ever of a twentieth-century neighborhood. The Art Deco society that she founded around the same time was the first such organization in the world.
Art Deco Weekend, now in its twenty-second year, actually stretches over a week of lectures, films, tours, concerts, and outdoor sales of antiques, all of which make for a great introduction to South Beach and its kaleidoscopic past. The theme in 1998 was fashion, in recognition of Miami’s growing role as a magnet for models and designers.
New on the schedule was an hourand-a-half excursion on a small canopied boat, docked on the Collins Canal at the north end of the official South Beach Art Deco District. The cruise followed an itinerary planned by Randall Robinson, who works for the Miami Beach Community Development Corporation. He explained that we’d be traveling past what he called the Lost Art Deco District. With architecture as fine as any on South Beach but without the shield of historic designation, it is under constant threat.
Robinson painted a quick history of Miami Beach, from its early days as a mosquito-ridden swamp to the lush life of the 1950s and 1960s, massively documented by hotels we floated past. Once a synonym for vulgarity, even behemoths like the Fontainebleau now have their defenders, among them Robinson, who pronounced Morris Lapidus’s 1954 Eden Roc “a jewel.”
The Collins Canal was the work of a South Florida pioneer farmer, John S. Collins, who in order to more easily transport his mangoes and avocados in 1912 cut this waterway across the island that forms today’s Miami Beach. Turning into Indian Creek, we came upon small islands holding the last remaining examples of the Mediterranean Revival mansions of the teens and early twenties, with their red-tiled roofs and Gothic arches. These represent the first phase of Miami as a resort, when the entrepreneur Carl Fisher platted the area starting in 1913, cut down its forbidding growth, and, setting himself a seemingly impossible task, dredged sand from the ocean bottom to create Miami’s famous strand.
The boat trip was but one of many competing events. I found that I needed to take the early-morning Saturday walking tour so as to keep the noon hour clear for a lecture, “The Fashion Revolution: The Art and Style of Paul Poiret,” followed immediately by a fashion-rich 1935 movie, My Man Godfrey . That meant skipping a concert by the Moon Over Miami quartet, at an outdoor stage on the north end of the district. Later I did manage to catch the tail end of a vigorous set by John G. and his Dixie Kats at the South Stage. Then I had to get back to the lecture hall to hear a food writer, Christopher !done, summon up “Fashionable Soirées of the Platinum Age,” followed by another movie classic, Dinner at Eight .
And so it went. On Sunday a trolley tour of the district, a lecture on fashion photography, more concerts, and another talk, this time from Michael Boodro, arts editor of Vogue , characterizing “Streamlined Style: The Cocktail Party and the Cocktail Dress.” Speaking of the enthusiasm with which 1920s and 1930s America embraced Deco in every aspect of living, Boodro teased out interesting connections by asking such questions as: What does a dress have in common with a skyscraper, and does a streamlined toaster work any faster?