In the early 1950s, a young Naval officer and his colleagues struggled to interest the Navy in Arctic operations. Their top secret efforts led to the first submarine trips to the North Pole by USS Nautilus and USS Skate in 1957 – dramatic successes that rivaled the Soviet Union's Sputnik that year – and shifted the balance of strategic power.

Coming on Line

From the beginning it was clear—in this case the beginning was December 2, 1942, the day the first man-made nuclear reactor was nudged to criticality in a squash court beneath the west stands of the University of Chicago’s Stagg Field and incidentally the first day of wartime g Read more >>

Dauntless John Holland not only perfected the undersea boat but fought to get it accepted. Both achievements brought him only grief