Was America The Wonderful Land Of Fusang?


Regarding the prison system of Fusang, Vining thought that Hwui Shan’s statements are possibly not to be taken literally but as an allegory on the Buddhist doctrine on hell. This brings up again the question of Buddhist influence on the religious beliefs of early American civilizations and Hwui Shan’s statement that he and his companions introduced it into Fusang. That question almost seems to be directly answered by the Austrian anthropologist Dr. Robert HeineGeldern, who—writing quite independently of the subject of Hwui Shan—has stated: “We have little doubt that a comparative analysis of the Mexican Mayan religion will reveal many traces of the former influences of Hinduism or Buddhism or both. To mention but one instance, the conceptions of hell and the punishments inflicted there resemble Buddhist and Hindu beliefs to such an extent that the assumption of historic relationship is almost inevitable.”

Who will now revive the Hwui Shan controversy and gainsay the conclusion of Dr. Charles E. Chapman, the last American historian to write on the subject: “Either Fusang was in America, presumably in Mexico, or else the story was a lie. The evidence that it was true is almost overwhelming”?