History And The Imagination

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The editors have invited me to write an occasional column on history as encountered in movies and on television. The assignment is welcome to one who has been irregularly a film critic as well as regularly a historian. But the job may not be so simple as it first appears. For the relationship between history and film takes a diversity of forms—from film as rendition of past history to film as material for future history.

I expect to write mostly about the cinematic depiction of the past. Still, one should note that the film has become itself a historical source. Younger historians especially are turning to movies as a means of entry into the recent past. Two periodicals— Film & History and The Journal of Popular Film —tease historical meanings out of flickering images, much as historians of ancient Greece or China tease meanings out of potsherds and grave rubbings. The recent book American History/American Film , edited by J. E. O’Connor and M. A. Jackson (Frederick Ungar, 1979), presents a variety of styles of historical analysis.

Even traditional historians are willing to accept newsreels and documentaries as sources, but they remain dubious about fiction films. Yet on reflection the distinction between documentaries and dramas may not be all that clear cut. Both involve the selection and arrangement of images; selection and arrangement involve interpretation. Documentaries may even be the more treacherous, since the overlay of reality tends to conceal the manipulative purpose. Overtly fictional films at least warn their audiences that they are not literal representations of actuality. Yet fiction films cannot issue from the imagination alone. They are products of a particular place and time. Moreover, they are products of a collective process and are designed for a mass audience. Created by a crowd for a crowd, movies inescapably bear the imprint of the society that makes them.

On the most palpable level, they may serve as mirrors of their age. The Warner Brothers vernacular films of the 1930’s, for example, are a treasure house for the historian, offering a gritty journalistic panorama of life, work, love, and death in the great city. Among other things, as a writer recently pointed out in the Village Voice , old films remind us what has happened to the dollar in the age of inflation—as when on the late show we view “such scenes as someone almost having a nervous breakdown over asking his boss for a $2 raise; two gangsters haggling over whether $75 is enough to charge for a rub out; someone leaping for joy because of a $5,000 inheritance and shouting, ‘Now I’m fixed for life.’ ”

Movies are dream as well as reality. They embody an epoch’s pervasive values, hopes, ambitions, anxieties, fears. “What films reflect,” as Siegfried Kracauer wrote in From Caligari to Hitler , “are not so much explicit credos as … those deep layers of collective mentality which extend more or less below the dimensions of consciousness. ” Analysis of deep layers is tricky, and Kracauer’s argument that the German movies of the 1920’s prophesied Nazism has excited much controversy. Nonetheless, properly deciphered, films have something to tell us not only about the surfaces but also about the depths of modern life.

This is film as evidence for history; there is also film as instruction in history. Films tell us about the past in several ways. As writers may reconstruct the past in forms ranging from the scholarly monograph through the synoptic overview to the historical epic or romance, so film makers can render history as documentary, as “docudrama,” and as dramatization.

Documentary uses only authentic shots taken at the time, edits them, and adds a commentary and a musical score. The splendid Second World War series Victory at Sea is a memorable example; the Thames Television’s fine The World at War is another. The “docudrama”—an ugly but precise word—mingles the appearance of a documentary with the reality of a dramatization. Its characters are historical figures, and the pretense is of factual accuracy; but the means is the staged re-enactment of historical events. The dramatization abandons any documentary pretense and uses literary invention and poetic license to reimagine the past, seeking less to get every fact right than to seize the essence of historical conflict and achievement.

The docudrama has had a considerable run on television in recent years. Some examples—“Eleanor and Franklin,” for instance, and “The Missiles of October”—have won deserved admiration for a combination of dramaturgic skill with general fidelity to actual characters and events. (I remember seeing “The Missiles” in Theodore Sorensen’s living room with other veterans of the missile crisis. The sight of actors labeled with the names of people in the room and not much resembling them provoked general hilarity; but I noticed that, once the drama got under way, the jokes ceased, and the group watched with intense interest.) Other docudramas, like the television biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr., Douglas MacArthur, and Senator Joe McCarthy, have been widely denounced as distortions of the historical record. Falsification in works professing documentary accuracy perpetrates a fraud on the public in a manner that dramatizations employing obviously made-up characters cannot do. If a docudrama is technically skillful enough, unwary viewers may even suppose they are seeing the real thing.