Seeing Murrow Now

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Murrow’s time in London was only the start of his broadcasting career; working in television during the two decades that followed the war, he set standards of eloquence, concision, and probity to which young reporters still aspire. But the London years clearly marked the high point of his life; most of what came after disappointed him, in large part because the institutions for which he worked were never so interested in reporting hard facts as he was.

His most memorable television documentaries—the defense of Lt. Milo Radulovich, unjustly dismissed from the Air Force Reserve as a security risk; the devastating portrait of Joseph McCarthy; pioneering programs on the plight of migrant workers and the fatal link between cancer and smoking—reaped armfuls of awards for him and for his network. But the criticism they drew also made the executives of that network nervous and its sponsors wary; toward the end of his time with CBS, he and his partner, Fred W. Friendly, were paying out of their own pockets to advertise “See It Now” in The New York Times.

Sperber’s book offers a good deal of evidence for what the CBS staffers who formed the clandestine “Murrow is not God club” always knew: that he had his share of quirks. He was tortured by black depressions; had a series of affairs (with Marlene Dietrich, among others); and took himself so seriously that as a young man he pretended to be two years older than he was and consciously tried to spread wrinkles across his unmarked brow because, he said, he wanted people to know that he thought a lot. He was uncomfortable with fame and never overcame the mike fright that made his legs shake and sweat stream down his neck; the unfiltered Camels on which he pulled with such ferocity—up to ninety a day—helped steady him.

He himself helped blur the already shadowy line between news and entertainment; he is best remembered for “See It Now,” but he was also the host of a far more popular weekly program called “Person to Person,” in which he chatted with celebrities—from Marilyn Monroe to Norman Vincent Peale, Sherman Adams to Gypsy Rose Lee—while being shown through their homes. The closest current parallel is, well, “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous.” Murrow’s efforts to be informal were painful to watch. Herbert Bayard Swope wrote him he thought there was something odd about all these people calling him “Ed”; “Mr. Murrow” would be more fitting. Swope was right.

Murrow, said his wife, was “a sufferer”; a colleague suggested that what he suffered from most was his belief “that we live in a perfectible world.”

It was a muddled confrontation with his boss, Frank Stanton, over programming practices on this show, not one of his uncompromising documentaries, that sparked his final break with the network. Stanton, anxious to assure viewers in the wake of the quiz-show scandals that CBS would sin no more, had promised henceforth to begin each “Person to Person” interview with a solemn disclaimer saying the program had been rehearsed. Murrow felt his integrity had been called into question.

He then accepted John Kennedy’s offer to serve as director of the United States Information Agency (USIA), hoping to bring a new boldness and honesty to its overseas broadcasts—and made a whole new set of superiors nervous. The March, a USIA film on the 1963 March on Washington, for example, came under heavy fire from within the administration for lacking “balance.” “I am unrepentant...,” Murrow told an aide. “It is a good film and anyone...who believes that every individual film must present a ‘balanced’ picture, knows nothing about either balance or pictures.” Murrow also found Robert Kennedy’s penchant for gumshoeing tiresome; according to the author, Murrow once found a stranger going through his desk at the USIA; he slammed the drawer shut on the man’s hand, trapping him, then let him go, and told him—among other, more colorful things—to “tell Bobby if he wants to know something, he can ask Jack!

Cancer, the inevitable product of all those hundreds of thousands of cigarettes, drove Murrow to retire in January 1964 and spread swiftly from his lungs to his brain. He lived just more than a year. A friend remembered calling upon him at the Dakota Apartments on Central Park in New York City toward the end; he was wasted, unable to stand, wearing a red stocking cap to hide the signs of surgery and radiation, but he watched the television screen with something of his old intensity as an administration spokesman offered the official version of prospects for victory in Vietnam. “They’re out of their minds,” he said, covering his face with his bony hands. “They’re lying. How can he say that?”

At the end of his last official speech as director of the USIA, defending the principle of truth telling even when discussing our worst flaws, he reminded his listeners that appearances finally didn’t count for much. “At the end of the day,” he said, “it’s what we are that matters.”