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American Laureates In Physiology Or Medicine

May 2024
2min read

1912 ALEXIS CARREL Born in France.

For his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs.

1930 KARL LANDSTEINER
Born in Austria.

For his discovery of human blood groups.

1933 THOMAS H. MORGAN

For his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

1934 GEORGE R. MINOT WILLIAM P. MURPHY GEORGE H. WHIPPLE

For their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia.

1943 EDWARD A. DOISY

For his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

1944 JOSEPH ERLANGER HERBERT S. GASSER

For their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers.

1946 HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER

For the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation.

1947 CARL F. CORI GERTY T. CORI
Born in Austria.

For their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen.

1950 PHILIP S. HENCH
EDWARD C. KENDALL

For their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex.

1951 MAX THEILER
Born in South Africa.

For his discoveries concerning yellow fever and the development of a vaccine.

1952 SELMAN A. WAKSMAN
Born in Russia.

For his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis.

1953 FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN
Born in Germany.

For his discovery of coenzyme A and its importance for cell metabolism.

1954 JOHN F. ENDERS THOMAS H. WELLER FREDERICK C. ROBBINS

For their discovery of the ability of polio viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissues.

1956 DICKINSON RICHARDS, JR. ANDRÉ F. COURNAND
Born in France.

For their development of a technique for inserting a catheter through a vein into the heart to diagnose circulatory ailments.

1958 GEORGE W. BEADLE EDWARD L. TATUM

For their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.

JOSHUA LEDERBERG

For his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.

1959 SEVERO OCHOA
Born in Spain. ARTHUR KORNBERG

For their discovery of the mechanisms of synthesis of RNA and DNA, organic compounds that carry hereditary characteristics.

1961 GEORG VON BÉKÉSY
Born in Austria-Hungary.

For his discoveries of the physical mechanism of the inner ear.

1962 JAMES D. WATSON

For discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

1964 KONRAD E. BLOCH
Born in Germany.

For discoveries concerning the mechanism and control of cholesterol metabolism.

1966 PEYTON ROUS

For his discovery of tumor-inducing viruses.

CHARLES B. HUGGINS
Born in Canada.

For his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer.

1967 HALDAN K. HARTLINE GEORGE WALD

For their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical processes in the eye.

1968 ROBERT W. HOLLEY
MARSHALL NIRENBERG HAR GOBIND KHORANA
Born in India.

For their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

1969 ALFRED D. HERSHEY MAX DELBRÜCK
Born in Germany. SALVADOR E. LURIA
Born in Italy.

For their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.

1970 JULIUS AXELROD

For discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals.

1971 EARL W. SUTHERLAND, JR.

For his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

1972 GERALD M. EDELMAN

For discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

1974 ALBERT CLAUDE
Born in Belgium. GEORGE EMIL PALADE
Born in Romania. CHRISTIAN DE DUVE
Born in England.

For their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

1975 DAVID BALTIMORE HOWARD M. TEMIN RENATO DULBECCO
Born in Italy.

For discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

1976 BARUCH S. BLUMBERG D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK

For discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

1977 ROGER GUILLEMIN
Born in France. ANDREW SCHALLY
Born in Poland.

For their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain.

ROSALYN YALOW

For the development of radioimmunoassay of peptide hormones.

1978 DANIEL NATHANS HAMILTON O. SMITH

For the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to the problems of molecular genetics.

1979 ALLAN M. CORMACK
Born in South Africa.

For the development of the CAT scan (computer-assisted tomography), a three-dimensional X-ray technique.

1980 GEORGE D. SNELL BARUJ BENACERRAF
Born in Venezuela.

For discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

1981 ROGER W. SPERRY DAVID H. HUBEL
Born in Canada.

For work in brain physiology; mapping the functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

TOSTEN N. WIESEL
Born in Sweden.

For the discovery of the process by which visual images are transmitted from the retina to the brain.

1983 BARBARA McCLINTOCK

For the discovery that genes are not fixed on the chromosomes but move unpredictably.

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