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Vladimir Putin used historical references and a claim of fighting “fascism” to justify war on Ukraine, despite his own glaring Hitlerian behavior.

Six essays in this issue provide historical context for the tragic and brutal war unfolding in Ukraine. “We need to turn to history,” claims Vladimir Putin, “to have a better understanding of the present and look into the future.” 

For a decade, the West has sleep-walked through a new kind of warfare being waged from Moscow. It took Putin's ground war against Ukraine to wake people up.

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