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The Seven Stages In The Evolution Of A Surgical Idea

December 2023
1min read

When I was visiting with Dr. Lillehei, who now devotes most of his time to matters related to the St. Jude valve, a valve he developed and which is used worldwide to replace damaged or diseased heart valves, he showed me a chart he had drawn up to describe the evolution of a surgical idea:

“Obviously,” Dr. Lillehei said of his chart, “it’s crude, but it’s also very true. It’s difficult to fight the skeptics and the naysayers when you’re trying to do new things. But in the end, it’s worth it.”

—W. A.N.

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